This article originally appeared on HBR.org.
Leaders know that they’ll occasionally need to give tough feedback to their employees, colleagues, and clients. And yet, no matter how skilled or experienced they are at it, most would also do anything to find a way out. As Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton and Sheila Heen explain in their book, Difficult Conversations, this internal struggle is natural: “If we try to avoid the problem, we’ll feel taken advantage of, our feelings will fester… and we’ll rob the other person of the opportunity to improve things. But if we confront the problem, we may be rejected or attacked, we might hurt the other person in ways we didn’t intend, and the relationship might suffer.”
In a 2013 Globis survey of more than 200 professionals on the topic of difficult conversations, 97% of respondents said they were concerned about the associated levels of stress for the other person, 94% were worried about damaging the other person’s self-esteem, and 92% were fearful of causing upset. And, while 80% of respondents reported that these conversations were a part of their job, more than half indicated that they didn’t feel like they had adequate training on how to conduct them effectively.
In my role as an executive coach, I often help clients overcome their hesitation and anxiety so they’re able to handle tough but important conversations in the right way. But sometimes, in doing this work, we discover that their avoidance instincts are actually valid. Not every conversation needs to be had immediately, had by them, or had at all.
How can you assess whether you’re making a strategic choice to avoid a difficult conversation or just chickening out? Here are 11 questions designed to help you consider what to say, delay, or skip:
- Based on what I know about this person and our relationship, what can I realistically hope to achieve by having the conversation?
- What is my “secret agenda” or “hidden hope” for this conversation? (Long-term harmony? Revenge? That they will change?)
- What concrete examples do I have to share of how this issue has shown up?
- What’s my contribution to the situation?
- Do I tend to look for problems with this person or about this issue?
- Is it already starting to resolve itself?
- How long ago did it arise? Is it a repeat or recurring problem? Could it become one?
- How “material” is the issue to our relationship or to the job?
- How committed am I to being “right”?
- What reasonable, actionable solution can I offer?
- Is this the right person to talk to about this issue?
If your answers tell you that the situation is likely to resolve itself, that your concern isn’t critical to the relationship or work product, or that you’re more committed to placing blame or being right than in really listening or seeking solutions, or that the appropriate time to address the problem has passed, then you probably shouldn’t speak up.
I worked with one leader who was angry about the fact that she had gone through a time-consuming process to help her company apply for a prestigious industry award, only for her boss to take credit when the organization won. He didn’t even invite her to the awards ceremony. When we discussed how to confront the problem, she acknowledged that she had been frustrated with her boss’ pattern of claiming responsibility for her ideas for more than five years. But she ultimately decided that she wouldn’t bring up all those incidents, only the most recent, arguing that she deserved to accompany him to the event. She also decided that she would continue to address these concerns in the moment, rather than letting her anger build up, poisoning her relationship and her credibility.
Another leader with whom I worked wanted to talk to his direct report about being “less defensive” when he gave her feedback. But when I asked him to identify specific behaviors, he couldn’t articulate them beyond “it’s just how I feel when I talk with her.” He therefore decided to delay the conversation until he could offer concrete evidence and offer more useful advice on how to do things differently.
A third leader I counseled decided that she should stop trying to have difficult conversations with her boss — and instead go to HR — after he excoriated her in front of her team, then ignored her complaints about it. “I wanted to humiliate you,” he told her. “I think you set a bad example for your team and you should know better by now.” She knew then that speaking up in the future would be fruitless, so she brought in outside help and her boss ultimately moved on from the department.
Leaders who decide carefully and strategically about whether to speak up or let it go aren’t abdicating responsibility. They are taking responsibility for making sure that the messages they do communicate are delivered for the right reasons and generate the desired results.
Learn more about feedback:
- HBR Live: How to Effectively Give and Receive Feedback
- Feedback: Do You Lean In or Back Away?
- Feedback is Good for Your Health
- How to Give Negative Feedback When Your Organization Is ‘Nice’
- When Your Employee Doesn’t Take Feedback
- How The Boda Group can help your organization build a feedback-rich culture.